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Shoulder Pain

Shoulder Pain

Pain in the shoulder may suggest an injury, which is more common in athletes participating in sports such as swimming, tennis, pitching, and weightlifting. The injuries are caused due to the over usage or repetitive motion of the arms.

Rotator Cuff Pain

Rotator Cuff Pain

The rotator cuff consists of a group of tendons and muscles that surround and stabilize the shoulder joint. These tendons allow a wide range of movement of the shoulder joint across multiple planes. Irritation or injury to these tendons can result in rotator cuff pain.

Rotator Cuff Tear

Rotator Cuff Tear

The rotator cuff is a group of tendons in the shoulder joint that provides support and enables a wide range of motion. A major injury to these tendons may result in rotator cuff tears. It is one of the most common causes of shoulder pain in middle-aged and older individuals.

Shoulder Arthritis

Shoulder Arthritis

The term arthritis literally means inflammation of a joint but is generally used to describe any condition in which there is damage to the cartilage. Damage of the cartilage in the shoulder joint causes shoulder arthritis. Inflammation is the body's natural response to injury. The warning signs that inflammation presents are redness, swelling, heat, and pain.

Shoulder Impingement

Shoulder Impingement

Shoulder impingement is the inflammation of the tendons of the shoulder joint. It is one of the most common causes of pain in the shoulder. Shoulder impingement is also called swimmer’s shoulder, tennis shoulder or rotator cuff tendinitis.

Shoulder Instability

Shoulder Instability

Shoulder instability is a chronic condition that causes frequent dislocation of the shoulder joint.

Shoulder Labral Tear

Shoulder Labral Tear

Traumatic injury to the shoulder or overuse of the shoulder (throwing, weightlifting) may cause the labrum to tear. In addition, aging may weaken the labrum leading to injury.

Shoulder Dislocation

Shoulder Dislocation

Sports that involve overhead movements and repeated use of the shoulder at your workplace may lead to sliding of the upper arm bone from the glenoid. The dislocation might be a partial dislocation (subluxation) or a complete dislocation causing pain and shoulder joint instability. The shoulder joint often dislocates in the forward direction (anterior instability), and sometimes in the backward or downward direction.

Shoulder Ligament Injuries

Shoulder Ligament Injuries

Shoulder ligament injuries are injuries to the tough elastic tissues present around the shoulder that connect bones to each other and stabilize the joint. The ligaments present in the shoulder are connected to the ends of the scapula, humerus, and clavicle bones which form the shoulder complex.

Frozen Shoulder

Frozen Shoulder

Frozen shoulder, also called adhesive capsulitis, is a condition in which you experience pain and stiffness in your shoulder. The symptoms appear slowly, worsen gradually and usually take one to three years to resolve on their own.

Shoulder Fracture

Shoulder Fracture

A break in a bone that makes up the shoulder joint is called a shoulder fracture.

Fracture of the Shoulder Blade (Scapula)

Fracture of the Shoulder Blade (Scapula)

The scapula (shoulder blade) is a flat, triangular bone providing attachment to the muscles of the back, neck, chest, and arm. The scapula has a body, neck, and spine portion.

Shoulder Trauma

Shoulder Trauma

Shoulder injuries most commonly occur in athletes participating in sports such as swimming, tennis, pitching, and weightlifting. The injuries are caused due to the over usage or repetitive motion of the arms.

Clavicle Fracture

Clavicle Fracture

The break or fracture of the clavicle (collarbone) is a common sports injury associated with contact sports such as football and martial arts, as well as impact sports such as motor racing. A direct blow over the shoulder that may occur during a fall on an outstretched arm or a motor vehicle accident may cause the clavicle bone to break.

Glenoid Fractures

Glenoid Fractures

Fractures of the glenoid are rare but can occur due to major trauma or during high-energy sports activities.

Proximal Humerus Fractures

Proximal Humerus Fractures

The humerus is the bone that forms the upper arm. It articulates with the glenoid cavity of the scapula (shoulder blade) to form the shoulder joint and with the lower arm bones – the ulna and radius – to form the elbow joint. The proximal humerus is the upper end of the arm bone that forms the shoulder joint. The humerus is broadly divided into the head, neck and shaft region.

Shoulder Bursitis

Shoulder Bursitis

Shoulder bursitis, also known as subacromial bursitis, is a condition characterized by pain and inflammation in the bursa of the shoulder. The bursa is a fluid-filled sac present between the bone and soft tissue that acts as a cushion and helps to reduce friction during movement.

Shoulder Tendonitis

Shoulder Tendonitis

Shoulder tendonitis is a condition characterized by inflammation of the tendons which connect the muscles to the shoulder bones. Tendonitis of the rotator cuff tendons is known as rotator cuff tendonitis. If the biceps tendon is affected, the condition is known as bicipital tendonitis.

Throwing Injuries of the Shoulder

Throwing Injuries of the Shoulder

Throwing injuries of the shoulder are injuries sustained as a result of trauma by athletes during sports activities that involve repetitive overhand motions of the arm as in baseball, American football, volleyball, rugby, tennis, track and field events, etc. Throwing injuries are mostly seen in the shoulder and elbow and can occur due to improper techniques, training errors, muscle imbalance, and overuse of muscles.

Subluxation

Subluxation

The shoulder is a highly mobile ball and socket joint. The ball of the upper arm bone (humerus) is held in place at the socket (glenoid) of the shoulder blade (scapula) by a group of ligaments. A partial dislocation of the shoulder joint is termed as a subluxation.

Posterior Shoulder Instability

Posterior Shoulder Instability

Posterior shoulder instability, also known as posterior glenohumeral instability, is a condition in which the head of the humerus (upper arm bone) dislocates or subluxes posteriorly from the glenoid (socket portion of the shoulder) as a result of significant trauma.

Snapping Scapula

Snapping Scapula

Snapping scapula or snapping scapula syndrome is also known as scapulothoracic syndrome or scapulocostal syndrome. It is a condition characterized by painful clicking, snapping, or grinding of the shoulder blade. The sound occurs as a result of rubbing of soft tissues between the thoracic wall and the scapula.

Sternoclavicular Arthritis

Sternoclavicular Arthritis

The term arthritis means inflammation of a joint and is associated with cartilage damage. Cartilage is a cushioned padding lining the bones that make up a joint in order to absorb stress during movement. Damage of the cartilage in the sternoclavicular joint of the shoulder causes sternoclavicular arthritis. When the cartilage is damaged, the two bones rub against each other causing pain, swelling, and stiffness of the joint.

SLAP Tears

SLAP Tears

The term SLAP (superior –labrum anterior-posterior) lesion or SLAP tear refers to an injury of the superior labrum of the shoulder.

Bicep Tendon Rupture at Shoulder

Bicep Tendon Rupture at Shoulder

Overuse and injury can cause fraying of the biceps tendon and eventual rupture. A biceps tendon rupture can either be partial, where it does not completely tear the tendon or complete, where the tendon completely splits in two and is torn away from the bone.

Sternoclavicular Joint (SC joint) Disorders

Sternoclavicular Joint (SC joint) Disorders

The sternoclavicular joint is the joint between the breastbone (sternum) and the collar bone (clavicle). The SC joint is one of the 4 joints that complete the shoulder and is the only joint that links the arm to the body. Like any other joints, the SC joint is covered by articular cartilage that helps the bones slide effortlessly against each other during arm and shoulder movement.

Acromioclavicular (AC) Joint Osteoarthritis

Acromioclavicular (AC) Joint Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis also called degenerative joint disease, is the most common form of arthritis. It occurs most often in older people. AC joint osteoarthritis affects the tissue covering the ends of bones (cartilage) in the AC joint of the shoulder. The cartilage becomes damaged and worn out causing pain, swelling, stiffness and restricted movement in the AC joint.

AC Joint Separation

AC Joint Separation

AC joint separation, also known as shoulder separation, is a condition characterized by damage to the ligaments that connect the acromion to the collar bone. As a result, the bones do not line up properly, causing joint pain and instability.

Sternoclavicular Separation

Sternoclavicular Separation

The sternoclavicular joint is a joint at the center of your upper chest, connecting your breastbone and collarbone, and held together by a strong band of ligaments. A sternoclavicular separation occurs when the ligaments connecting these two bones together are injured.

Acromioclavicular (AC) Arthritis

Acromioclavicular (AC) Arthritis

The acromioclavicular joint is part of the shoulder joint. It is formed by the union of the acromion, a bony process of the shoulder blade, and the outer end of the collar bone or clavicle. The joint is lined by cartilage that gradually wears with age as well as with repeated overhead or shoulder level activities such as basketball. The condition is referred to as AC arthritis or acromioclavicular arthritis.

Rotator Cuff Calcification

Rotator Cuff Calcification

Rotator cuff calcification is the abnormal accumulation of calcium deposits in rotator cuff muscles and tendons. The rotator cuff is a group of 4 muscles and tendons in the shoulder joint that join the head of the humerus to the shoulder. It forms a sleeve around the humeral head and glenoid cavity, providing additional stability to the shoulder joint while enabling a wide range of mobility.

Shoulder Disorders

Shoulder Disorders

The shoulder is the most flexible joint in the body that enables a wide range of movements. Aging, trauma or sports activities can cause injuries and disorders that can range from minor sprains or strains to severe shoulder trauma.

Partial Rotator Cuff Tear

Partial Rotator Cuff Tear

A partial rotator cuff tear is an incomplete tear that involves damage to a part of the tendon. The tear can be at the top, bottom or inner side of the tendon and does not go all the way through the tendon completely.

Biceps Tendon Rupture

Biceps Tendon Rupture

The biceps muscle is located in the front side of your upper arm and functions to help you bend and rotate your arm. The biceps tendon is a tough band of connective fibrous tissue that attaches your biceps muscle to the bones in your shoulder on one side and the elbow on the other side.

Shoulder Labral Tear with Instability

Shoulder Labral Tear with Instability

The shoulder consists of a ball-and-socket joint formed by the upper end of the humerus (upper arm bone) and a cavity in the shoulder blade called the glenoid. The glenoid cavity is surrounded by a rim of cartilage called the labrum. The labrum adds depth to the cavity making the joint more stable and positions the ball within the socket.

Proximal Biceps Tendon Rupture

Proximal Biceps Tendon Rupture

The biceps muscle is the muscle of the upper arm which is necessary for the movement of the shoulder and elbow. It is made of a ‘short head’ and a ‘long head’ which function together. These are connected to the shoulder joint by two tendons called the proximal biceps tendons and to the elbow joint by a single distal biceps tendon.

Multidirectional Instability of the Shoulder

Multidirectional Instability of the Shoulder

Instability may be described by the direction in which the humerus is subluxated or dislocated from the glenoid. When it occurs in several directions it is referred to as multidirectional instability.

Acromioclavicular (AC) Joint Injuries

Acromioclavicular (AC) Joint Injuries

The acromioclavicular (AC) joint in the shoulder is very important for shoulder strength, motion, and maintaining shoulder position. The joint is stabilized by various ligaments and a capsule, which can cause pain and affect normal joint function if damaged.

Sternoclavicular Joint Injury

Sternoclavicular Joint Injury

The sternoclavicular joint, commonly called the SC joint, is located between the breastbone (sternum) and the collarbone (clavicle). Sternoclavicular joint injuries can occur due to severe trauma or direct blows to the body as seen in motor vehicle accidents or in contact sports, where there is stretching or tearing of the supporting ligaments, and sometimes even fractures or dislocations.

Massive Retracted Rotator Cuff Tears

Massive Retracted Rotator Cuff Tears

A tear in the rotator cuff can cause pain and disability. It can occur from degeneration of the rotator cuff due to overuse or from a sudden injury. Massive rotator cuff tears involve tears in two complete tendons of the rotator cuff. A tear of more than 5 cm is described as massive. A massive tear may be associated with degeneration and retraction of the tendon and can be difficult to repair if treatment is delayed.

Rotator Cuff Bursitis

Rotator Cuff Bursitis

The rotator cuff is a set of muscles and tendons which hold the various bones of the shoulder joint together, providing strength and support. Inflammation of the bursa, a fluid-filled sac between the rotator cuff tendons and a bony process at the top of the shoulder called the acromion, is known as shoulder bursitis or rotator cuff bursitis. It is often accompanied by inflammation of the tendons or rotator cuff tendonitis.

Acromioclavicular Joint Dislocation (Shoulder Separation)

Acromioclavicular Joint Dislocation (Shoulder Separation)

A dislocation occurs when the ends of your bones are partially or completely moved out of their normal position in a joint. A partial dislocation is referred to as a subluxation, whereas a complete separation is referred to as a dislocation.

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  • UVM med school
  • Brown
  • University of Rochester Medical Center
  • mid Atlantic shoulder and elbow society
  • American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery
  • The University of Vermont Medical Center
  • Brown University
  • University of Rochester
  • Arthroscopy Association of North America
  • American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
  • New England Shoulder and Elbow Society
  • American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons